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Breast Implant-associated Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Initial Review and Early Recommendations


Background: The purpose of this study is to identify and describe all published cases of breast implant-associated squamous cell carcinoma (BIA-SCC) to gain a greater understanding of the incidence, presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis and to support development of recommendations that promote prompt diagnosis and management in clinical practice.

Methods: A scoping review of PubMed and social media sites was performed in August and September 2022 to identify published cases of SCC arising in the breast capsule. No limits were set on search results. Additional data review was begun on deidentified cases reported directly to American Society of Plastic Surgeons.

Results: Twelve articles met inclusion criteria and reported data on 16 total cases. Mean age of patients was 55.56 years (range, 40–81 years). Mean duration from initial implant placement to presentation was 23.56 years (range, 11–40 years). Cases occurred with silicone, saline, textured, and smooth implants. At the time of case publication or reporting, seven patients were alive, five were deceased and/or presumed deceased, and four were unreported.

Conclusions: BIA‐SCC seems to be a rare complication of breast implantation that can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Physicians should be aware of the presentation of BIA-SCC to promote prompt diagnosis and treatment. BIASCC should be discussed with all patients considering breast implantation as part of the informed-consent process. (Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2023; 11:e5072; doi: 10.1097/GOX.0000000000005072; Published online 14 June 2023.

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